Boundary conflict is a conflict over a boundary line that as a minimum is defined, or is in the process of being defined, by the parties, by implicit consent or explicit agreement. This means that all stakes and issues leading to disputes and armed conflicts are related to once and somehow agree upon boundaries. National or international boundaries are thus sharply defined lines, fixed by nations like fences between their respective properties.
However in nature there are no sharply marked boundaries of any sort, only zones of transition. Border settlement/negotiation is the act of arriving at a negotiated agreement two or more supranational or national entities on a contested territory. The classical supranational border conflict is between Akwa-Ibom and Cross-River states over some communities; or between Rivers and Akwa-Ibom states over oil wells; or Anambra and Kogi states over oil sites.
At international level, Nigeria and Cameroon have experienced conflict over the Bakassi peninsula that was settled with the signing of the Green-Tree Agreement following the decision of the International Court of Justice at Hague. Others include the dispute of Kashmir between India and Pakistan; the dispute over Diaoyu/Senkaku Island between Japan and China.
Nature of Border Dispute
As noted above, border dispute could be value, resource, interest, territory or security based.